One thing I Know About Anatomy and Physiology Essay Sample
Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Cells performing a certain function form a tissue. Tissues form organs and organs performing a cooperative function form systems (e.g. Kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder form the urinary system). Thus we have organizational levels.
Anatomy is the science of knowing the structure of the human body. The anatomist looks at the structure of all organs, describes how the structure suits function and how the organs of a system together perform one function. This is important in medicine practice. All the new techniques (endoscopy, CT scanning, MRI and the developing three-dimensional imaging) depend on understanding the gross (naked eye) anatomy of the body organs (Mc Cuskey and others 349). The physiologist looks at how the organ works and studies the way it performs its work. So it includes cell physiology, tissue and organ physiology as well as system physiology.
Each organization level depends on all the levels below; for example the basic contractile unit of a muscle (as the heart) is the contraction filament made of protein molecules. Contraction filaments then form a muscle cell. Muscle cells group, bound by connective tissue, to form a muscle tissue which in turn binds to other tissue (blood vessels or bones and joints) to form a system. Any disease or disorder that affects the parts of one level, affects the whole system. Additionally; all organs, together, have the function of adapting the human body to the environment (homeostatis). Homeostasis is keeping the body’s internal environment stable despite any change in the external environment. Thus a single system problem affects the whole body adapting mechanisms.
There are anatomical and physiological differences as we grow. It is of clinical importance to understand these differences to plane a safe management. Examples to this are many and vary. Blood volume is more in the neonates and decreases as we grow to adult life (86 ml-kg and 70-80 ml-kg respectively). As the kidneys are immature at birth, the infant has reduced renal (kidney) functions, in terms of glomerular filtrate and tubular functions. They reach adult values by the age of 2 years (Swamy and Mallikarjun 333-339).
The question now is how important the interdependence between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology). In other words are structure and function interdependent? A practical example is when a physician attends a patient, he listens to the complaints; analyze them in order to understand in the patient’s own words how he or she suffers adapting to the environment. Clinical examination is to note the anatomical changes in the target organ, the physician may then ask for a radiological examination (which is a way to confirm suspected anatomical changes). Instead, the physician may as ask for some lab tests (blood examination, blood chemistry, respiratory function tests…) which are methods to explore how the organs work (examination of physiology). In the same way that tools are designed to fit its functions, body organs are designed in the same way. The strong, autonomous contracting muscle of the heart enables it to pump the blood to the vascular tree of the whole body. Strong mineralized bone cortex surrounds the hollow bone marrow (the main manufacturer of blood cells) for protection as well as weight bearing. Therefore, the relationship between anatomy and physiology goes to the lowest organizational level to ensure protection, proper function and eventual homeostasis.
If there is one thing I know about anatomy and physiology, it is both are essential to understand disease, diagnose it and plane the management. They are interdependent and should be understood together from the perspective of integrated and interdependent body functions on all body organization levels.
Robert S. Mc Cuskey, Stephen W. Carmichael and Darrel, G. Kirch. “The importance of anatomy in health professions education and the shortage of qualified educators.” Academic Medicine vol 80 2005. p. 349-352.
Chidananda, Swamy and Mallikarjun, D. “Applied aspects of anatomy and physiology of relevance to pediateric anesthesia.” Indian J. Anaethesia vol 48 2004. p. 333-339.