Obesity – Exercise And Health Essay Sample
The case presented is of an 8-year-old girl, weighing 35 kgs and having a height of 126 cms. Keeping, the height, weight and age of the child in mind, the BMI of the child is about 19.7. In comparison to other children belonging to the same age group and sex, the child can be placed at the 93 percentile. Any figure above the 95 percentile can be considered as obesity. The child is at a high risk of being overweight or obese. However, it is important to not that currently the child is not overweight but has the potential of becoming overweight (CDC 2008).
One of the important criteria for determining if the child is overweight or obese. An obese individual would more often have fat accumulated around the waist regions. Studies have demonstrated that individuals with fat around the weight region are at higher risk of developing obesity-related problems such as diabetes and cardiac-vascular disease compared to those with subcutaneous fat in other parts of the body such as the hips. Individuals with weight gain in the waist region are termed as ‘apple type’ of obesity. On the other hand, pear type of obesity is considered to be fat accumulated in hips and the flank region. This child is at a very high risk of developing diabetes and cardiac disease, as the waist circumference is on the higher side (AJC, 2007).
Studies have found that there is a strong relation between the child being fat and the metabolic activity of the body. Further studies have also demonstrated that metabolic activity and fatness can affect the fitness of the child. Being overweight has a definite role to play on the metabolic activity. However, the role exercise and fitness has to play on metabolic activity is not understood clearly. In children and adolescents it is found that fitness levels can help reduce the fatness and reduce the risk of developing metabolic disorders. Studies have demonstrated that several factors including environmental, genetic, mitochondrial, ability to deposit adipose tissues, etc, play an important role in the development of obesity. It is important that children be demonstrated an entire different type of endurance or aerobic exercises to suit their needs. In children the Vo2 max scores should be around 40 to 50 ml/kg/min. On the other hand, an untrained adult has a VO2 max of about 35 to 40 ml/kg/min. This girl child has a VO2 max of 33 suggesting that her fitness levels are not properly and need to be improved. The child has a sedentary lifestyle, which needs to be corrected. More of physical activity, aerobics and training is recommended. Through exercise the physical activity of the child can be improved. The child spends about 3 hours in front of the TV, which needs to be reduced in order to improve the physical fitness levels (Joey C. Eisenmann. 2007 & Brian Mac, 2007).
The child’s Blood pressure is on the higher for an eight year old female child. Although the blood pressure is not abnormally high, there are high chances that the child develops hypertension in association with obesity in the future. The child’s systolic blood pressure is 115 mm Hg, which suggest the 95th percentile, and the diastolic is 75 mm Hg that is the 90th percentile (NHLBI. 2007).
The child’s cholesterol levels are 4.7 mmol/L. This is within the normal range for the child’s age and sex. However, the cholesterol levels are on the higher side. It would be interesting to note the cholesterol elves of the parents. A child would be able to tolerate higher cholesterol levels in case either or both of the parents are not affected with hypercholestrolemia. If the child has a cholesterol level of about 5.1 mmol/L, then it should be put on a diet and exercise schedule in order to lower the risk of developing cardiac problems and other conditions. The LDL levels are on the higher side whereas the HDL levels are towards the lower side (University of Toronto, 2007).
In a child, the normal triglyceride levels would be about 0.1 to 1.84 mmol/L. Although the triglyceride levels are within the normal range, again it could be considered high for age and sex, thus putting the child at a higher risk of developing arterioscleroses and heart disease (Mohsen A. F. El-Hazmi and Arjumand S. Warst. 2001).
The normal blood glucose level for a child following food would be around 7.7 mmol/L to 11 mmol/L. On the other hand the post-prandial blood sugar for the child is 7.8 mmol/L suggesting that it is within the normal range (ADA. 2007).
Overall, the child needs to perform greater amount of physical exercises and need to be active in order to develop a healthy lifestyle. A planned diet also needs to be followed, so that it could receive all the nutrients required for growth and development. The child needs to cut down on the TV activities as this could help the child in gaining weight.
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CDC. (2008), “BMI Calculator for Child and Teen: Results.” [Online], Accessed: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Result.aspx?&dob=1/1/2000&dom=1/1/2008&age=96&ht=50&wt=70&gender=2&method=0&inchtext=0&wttext=0CDC. [Retrieved on 2007, January 12].
Commonwealth of Australia. (2007), “About Overweight and Obesity.” [Online], Accessed: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-hlthwt-obesity.htm [Retrieved on 2007, January 12].
Eisenmann, J.C. (2007), “Aerobic fitness, fatness and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.” Acta Paed. 96(12), 1723-1729. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00534.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=apa
El-Hazmi, A. F. and Warst, A.S. (2001), “Evaluation of Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in 1–6-year-old Saudi Children.” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 47(3), pp. 181-185. http://tropej.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/3/181
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Mac, B. (2007), “Endurance Training.” [Online], Accessed: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni4a5.htm, [Retrieved on 2007, January 12].
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NHLBI. (2007), “Blood Pressure Levels for Boys by Age and Height Percentile.” [Online], Accessed: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/child_tbl.pdf, [Retrieved on 2007, January 12].
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. (2008), “BMI.” [Online], Accessed: http://www.ajc.com/health/content/shared/health/adam/careguides/000445.htm, [Retrieved on 2007, January 12].