The Manhattan Project was a code name for a military project that has been conducted during World Battle II between 1942 in addition to 1946. It is nevertheless believed to have technically started in 1939 right after President Roosevelt responded in order to a letter written simply by the famous physicist, Albert Einstein, expressing his concern that nuclear weapons have been being developed by the Nazis. This concern was also fuelled by recent research that had proven uranium could produce large chain reactions that can be used in strong bombs.
The particular purpose of the Manhattan project was to build atomic bombs that had been the first to ever be created on earth. The atomic bombs would be used in the War against Germany by countries such as the United Declares, the United Kingdom in addition to Canada. The atomic bombs were made of nuclear material that would biologically destroy the large section of the targeted area and its inhabitants.
Albert Einstein drafted his letter for the President together with Leo Szilard who had steered clear of the Nazi regime within Germany to the United States. Both Einstein and Szilard believed that the German’s were creating nuclear weapons that would be used in destroying countries that will opposed Fascist oppression.
President Roosevelt replied to Einstein’s letter simply by informing him that he or she had set up a committee that would be used in order to conduct research on uranium and its use within atomic bombs. President Roosevelt appointed Robert Oppenheimer to be able to head the Manhattan Job and to oversee typically the research and project services that were based within various parts of The usa (Gosling, 1999).
The Manhattan project derived its name from the particular location of its early operation centers which had been Manhattan Island in Fresh York City. The isle was chosen because regarding its port facilities in addition to a large military presence. Additional locations that were utilized in the availability and research of the atomic bombs included New Mexico, Tennessee, Richland, Washington, Canada, Oak Ridge and Los Alamos. These locations were selected because of their seclusion also because they allowed with regard to secrecy of the research facilities.
The secrecy and remoteness made that possible to obtain big supplies of raw components and labor as well as make decisions without having any political interference. How much money that was invested within the project amounted to $2. 2 billion bucks that was mostly used in conducting research within the results of uranium and exactly how this compound could become used in developing atomic bombs (Gosling, 1999).
The New Technologies Derived From the Manhattan Job
The particular Manhattan Project has recently been considered by many people chemical and nuclear scientists to end up being the revolution in technological innovation, warfare and moral integrity. The technology that has been used in creating the atomic bomb was viewed to be more advanced in addition to developed than the technological technology that existed just before that period.
The high level of scientific in addition to technological innovations employed in distancing the uranium neutrons has been used in the advancement of chemical weapons in addition to technology that might be used by simply the US military in addition to scientific institutions (Hughes, 2002).
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) was a nonpartisan organization set up in 1945 by scientists and chemical engineers who have been involved in the Ny Project. This organization was made because of the important part that science and technology played during the development of the atomic bomb.
The key goal of the FAS was going to develop and progress scientific technology that might be used in offering solutions to security plus scientific problems in the particular US. The main applications that fell under the particular FAS included the proper security program, the bio security program, the planet systems program and typically the educational technologies program (FAS, 2010).
Typically the strategic security program was developed to control atomic energy developed during the particular Manhattan Project. The system was focused on reducing the risks that emerged from nuclear exposure. The technologies that emerged coming from this program included portable air defense systems and chemical, nuclear weapons.
The bio protection program concentrated on exploring on ways that will be used to balance technology and security. The scientific and technological work of which emerged from the bio security program included biodefense research and biosecurity policies. The educational technologies plan focused on how innovative technologies derived from the particular Project could be applied for teaching and studying purposes (FAS, 2010).
The program created and developed games in addition to learning tools that would certainly be used in the training process. A major task in the educational technologies program will be the Immune Attack game simulation that teaches higher school students the inner functions of the body simply by navigating a tiny drone with the various circulatory in addition to immune systems within the particular human body.
The Immune Attack project developed by FAS was obviously a program that was designed to introduce molecular in addition to cellular biology in a new more visual way in order to high school graduation and college college students.
The world systems program was created to be able to examine how the earth’s natural resources interacted along with international security. This program was developed as a way regarding allowing people to employ technology to better their lives. The technological innovations that emerged from this particular program included prefabricated components, composite materials, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency (FAS, 2010)
Since the development of the blast, chemical scientists and physicists all over the world continued to conduct research on how indivisible or atomic technology can be used to make even more powerful bombs. Research into how nuclear energy could be used to power submarines, ships and power whole metropolitan areas was also been performed.
This analysis was mostly based on the Atomic Energy Commission’s (AEC) atomic energy analysis program that saw typically the development of the hydrogen bomb, the nuclear-powered submarine and the first general public utility nuclear power plant in the United Says (Herrera, 2006).
The investigation was also based on the technology that went into the creation from the atomic bomb has been utilized in creating volatile anesthetic agents such as methoxyflurane, halothane and halogenated ethers. The atomic bomb technology also improved the research information that existed about organofluorine chemistry and halogen agents. This was achievable when the chemical technical engineers and nuclear physicists establishing the bomb conducted the exercise of separating uranium 235 from uranium 238 (Angelo, 2004).
The collaboration that provides taken place over the years in between state, military, industry in addition to university specialists within the development of military and scientific technology has been the result of the New york Project. The institutions that were used in producing the atomic bomb inside the Manhattan Project shaped the foundations of postwar technology.
The particular most important wartime technological innovation organization that emerged inside the US was your Countrywide Defense Research Committee which often was later changed to be able to the Organization for Scientific Study and Development (OSRD).
This organization oversaw many scientific and scientific projects that were used during and before Ww ii. The two most essential projects that emerged coming from the OSRD included adnger zone research and uranium job research work. The adnger zone research which was later on renamed to Radlab produced 150 technological innovations within the form of radar and electronic systems (Herrera, 2006).
Typically the energy crisis that required place in 1973 saw the United States encountering a pointy increase in energy and oil prices as well as related oil products. Until the vitality crisis, energy research and development activities were generally focused on the development of nuclear power which was under the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).
The commission was created by the U. T. Congress after the New york Project to handle civilian and military projects that were related to nuclear and atomic energy in 1946. To respond to the particular energy crisis, the US Congress incorporated the research plus project facilities which were applied in the Manhattan Project into the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Atomic Vitality Commission (Stine, 2009).
The technologies have been proposed to improve the particular energy problem that had been being experienced by the usa included developing alternative technologies vehicles that would require less harmful energy resources, developing and building vitality efficient buildings that could use no more than 55 percent in the energy used by buildings of a comparable size and type, creating a large scale solar heating power plant that would be capable of creating 300 megawatts or more at a cheaper cost.
Other technologies incorporated developing biofuels that do not exceed 105 per cent and developing carbon catch facilities which will be used in large scale coal burning up (Stine, 2009).
Some of the experts who were involved in the Job used radionucleides in localizing radioactive isotopes that might be used in destroying cancerous cells. Before the Project was started, cancer patients had been mostly treated through surgical procedure which most of the particular times was not effective.
But right after the Project was completed radiographic and chemotherapy technologies was developed by technicians involved in the project to take care of cancerous cells in addition to tumors. This involved introducing the radioactive isotopes inside the radiographic and chemotherapy treatments (Lenoir & Hays, 2010).
The Manhattan Project also saw the improvement and advancement of Aerospace technology such as the American heavy bombers (B-29 Super fortress) that had been utilized in the Japan bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The sophisticated weaponry used these bombers included the bombsights, radar technology and higher performance engines that would certainly be used in bombing locations. This technology mainly relied on the scientific innovations that have been used in the Manhattan Project (Kelly & Rhodes, 2007).
Benefits and Hazards of the New Technologies
While the Manhattan Project achieved their goal of developing the first atomic bomb, there were many benefits and dangers that will emerged from the technological innovation that was used to build the bomb. The advantages of the Manhattan project and the technology applied in developing the nuclear weapons were used in the health care field to perform radiography operations as well since chemotherapy for cancer individuals.
The atomic bomb technology was also used in developing KITTY scan machines that would certainly be utilized in hospitals in addition to medical practices. Another profit of the Manhattan Project and its technology has been that it led in order to the end of World War II and the Cold Battle (Elish, 2008).
The point that the United Says possessed a powerful tool that would cause disastrous effects such as those experienced in Hiroshima ended any form of communist period and dictatorship.
The large scale protection program also paved the way for other government research installation that would be utilized in developing military weapons. The technology that had been used in developing typically the nuclear bombs also opened the way for scientific research function that would be used in developing alternative energy sources from olive oil such as nuclear or perhaps atomic power.
The project also shown the fast response regarding the government and top scientists when it arrived to responding to typically the Nazi threat. The advancement of the bomb inside such a short period of time of time also showed that the US government has been determined to protect the livelihoods of American citizens regardless of the consequences. The dangers or pitfalls of the Manhattan Job were in evidence following the Hiroshima bombings in The japanese (Kelly & Rhodes, 2007).
The rainfall that accompanied the blast explosion was heavily polluted with radioactive particles that led to radiation poisoning around the affected civilians. Higher degrees of poisoning led to be able to the death of numerous innocent people while all those who survived the bombings suffered from sever burns up, vomiting, hair loss, reduction of eyesight, nausea plus vomiting. The Manhattan Project was also infiltrated by simply spies from the Soviet Union who were also keen in developing elemental weapons.
Klaus Fuchs was a Soviet secret agent who had infiltrated typically the Los Alamos research center as a scientist. Fuchs gathered information and technologies that was used within developing the atomic explosive device and relayed it to be able to the Soviet Union who speeded up the progress the Soviet bomb. Another Soviet spy was Jesse Maclean who also relayed information on the prospective of the atomic explosive device to the Soviet Union (Kelly & Rhodes, 2007).
Other spies included Theodore Hall, Allan Nunn May and Bruno Pontecorvo who all offered as scientists in typically the Manhattan Project. Such a high number of agents in the United Says created an environment of stress and fear between the United states Citizens feared an assault from the German Nazis. The Manhattan Project also improved the emotional and emotional wellness of American people and civilians in the rest of the planet as a result of threat of nuclear power and its damaging consequences.
Sociable and Cultural Effects regarding the Manhattan Project
The period regarding World War II plus the Cold War noticed the United States encountering the varied and much reaching effects of the two wars. The country skilled an increase in economic activity and the production, manufacturing industry began to get. There were notable developments inside aerospace, electronic and atomic energy technology which was mostly attributed to the Manhattan Project.
While the Manhattan Task was lauded by many to be a major discovery in research and advancement as well as inside energy technology, there were fundamental forces that would seem unethical in today’s compa?ero cultural context that drove the creation of the historic technological achievement (Koistinen, 2004).
These makes included the ability to be able to replace the program from a threat or cause associated with national concern to a cement goal that can be used in future innovations plus the future technique technologies that was used in developing the atomic blast. The first factor describes the particular goal of the Ny Project which was to respond to a threat associated with enemy development of a nuclear bomb by the particular Nazis in Germany.
The second factor describes the use associated with the technology that was mainly shifted to the authorities which had little or no concern on typically the environment and the devastating consequences of the nuclear weapons on innocent civilians (Stine, 2009).
Most of the researchers who required part in the Ny Project weighed their honest values when they got involved in the development regarding a weapon that might cause unprecedented death and destruction when released to the general population. The risks had to become outweighed from the anticipated rewards of using the biological product during the war.
The understanding that the US federal government was in possession regarding nuclear weapons also produced some levels of stress and anxiety amongst the particular American citizens. This was each time when the region was experiencing poor financial growth plus the American citizens were struggling to make comes to an end meet. The quality regarding life during World Conflict II and the Cold War was also poor as many American’s existed under the constant concern with being attacked by typically the Soviet’s and the Germans (Koistinen, 2004).
The Manhattan Project designated the beginning of nuclear science that transformed typically the everyday lives of the particular average American. Civilians identified themselves within a brand new global context that has been characterized by the presence of dangerous atomic bombs and nuclear weapons.
The detonation regarding the first atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki marked the end of 1 era and the start of another. The local effects of the Manhattan Project challenged the social goal of the project as well as the honest practices of the US government, politicians, scientists and engineers involved in the making regarding the bomb.
The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was looked at by most Americans in order to be an unthinkable engagement by the government inside ending human life. The particular nuclear bomb was observed to get an incomprehensible nationwide and cultural project whose effects constantly exceeded typically the modern logistics needed to be able to build nuclear facilities.
The communities of which were most affected by simply the Manhattan Project included the Los Alamos local community in New Mexico where most of the nuclear tests were performed. The community members benefited from your research facility as they were able to gain employment in the labs (Masco, 2006).
Political and Technological Effects of the Manhattan Project
The political and technological effects of the particular Manhattan Project were sensed on different levels which often were the individual, domestic and the international level. On the individual level, many people who were involved inside the Project had their ethics and moral values tested when they had been called upon to create a nuclear weapon that will would kill many individuals inside a certain radius. The ethical and moral integrity in the scientific and engineering team was put in order to the test as a result of elemental bombs.
Robert Oppenheimer who was the lead director of the Ny Project faced several moral dilemmas as a science tecnistions because of his function in the creation of any deadly weapon that had been deemed to be unlawful and detrimental to both human being beings and the environment.
When Chief executive Roosevelt died, the schutzhelm of presidency was carried on by Harry Truman that and made the choice to drop the bomb in Hiroshima following the Western attacked Pearl Harbor. His decision was viewed by many people around the planet to have been unwanted as it lead to be able to loosing thousands of innocent civilian lives in Hiroshima. The bomb also caused unneeded health complications to people who were within the radius of the nuclear blast explosion (Edmondson, 2009).
The domestic associated with the Manhattan Project were felt in the United States when the money used in developing typically the bomb would be applied in developing the country’s defense budget as a result period to the present. The creation of the atomic bomb also made the United States to become the world’s superpower when it came to its military and defense.
The negative results of the project to the United States residents is that it created a new certain amount of concern in the American occupants as they feared infiltration by communist dictators in addition to sympathizers. This fear noticed Senator Joseph McCarthy performing a witch hunt inside the US that has been intended to flash out typically the communist sympathizers and spies from the country. The outcome of this witch search was the destruction of many civilian lives that had been suspected to be communism sympathizers (Kelly & Rhodes, 2007).
Typically the international associated with the Manhattan Project saw the deal with of world politics in the course of that time changing entirely. After the Hiroshima bombings in Japan, the Soviet Union began developing alone as the next country to develop nuclear power. The country was able to gain information on just how to create an atomic bomb from Klaus Fuchs who was a New york Project scientist and Soviet spy.
This specific situation developed security issue between the two nations around the world as each increased the nuclear arsenal to counter any attacks from your additional. The effects of this situation were that every of the countries sunk a huge amount associated with funds in developing the nuclear arsenals which saw them facing huge financial obligations. There was also mental and psychological effects upon US citizens who resided with anxiety and concern of being attacked by the Soviet Union from any time (Kelly & Rhodes, 2007).
The Manhattan Project and Its Use in Medical Research
Since the end of the Cold War, policy makers have raised concerns over significance of federal investment in scientific research. Policy makers possess called for a fresh contract to get developed in between science and society that would foster a closer functioning relationship between scientific laboratories and scientific academicians. This kind of a model for typically the science and society agreement is known as the Human Genome Initiative.
This specific initiative have been viewed because a potential Manhattan Project for biological work amongst scientists, engineers and physicists who are mostly concerned with the commercial creation of biomedical technology of which will be used in medical science. The Individual Genome Initiative incorporates the particular same approaches and methods that were used by the Manhattan Project inside developing warfare weapons that will would be used during the Cold War (Lenoir & Hays, 2010).
Lenoir and Hays (2010) note that right after the Cold War presently there has always been the Manhattan Project in the field of biomedicine and medical science. The scientists and physicists who had been included in the Manhattan Task research contemplated on just how to incorporate the project’s plans into various army and civilian fields these kinds of as physics, biophysics and nuclear medicine.
One of the first research efforts that forwent the Manhattan Project had been the use of radionucleides in physiological studies to localize radioactive isotopes that might be used in destroying cancerous cells.
These kinds of research efforts began inside 1923 and they grew to become fully operational in 43 when the Manhattan Job was fully underway. The Manhattan Project also created a substantial amount associated with medical research programs of which were utilized in the healthcare care of project employees that were based within Oak Ridge, Washington in addition to Hanford. These programs were seen to be important as they created the way of reducing the hazardous negative effects of radioactive materials (Lenoir & Hays, 2004).
The Manhattan Project has been viewed as the genesis of research and growth in the field regarding scientific technology and atomic energy creation. The different locations that were utilized during the Manhattan Task were converted into research laboratories and institutions that are now being used for further scientific and technological developments. The creation of the atomic and nuclear bombs heralded the emergence of elemental energy that could end up being employed in powering huge towns and supporting the energy consumption of civilians.
The project furthermore ensured that there have been theoretical breakthroughs in the particular field of nuclear physics and chemistry which has improved experimentation and study within the field. The Manhattan Project is therefore a great important put in the history of the world because of the technological advancements that were invented during the period of the project.
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