John Gresham Machen


He is a legendary American theologian and fundamentalist leader. During the final days of his lifestyle, his health deteriorated in addition to painfully struggled against the particular health battle. In January 1936, his cohorts cautioned him against taking the trip to North Dakota because there was cold temperature.

He was much determined in order to encourage the faithful people of the movement, which he had founded and was under immense criticisms. He had many sleepless nights worrying about the continuing future of of which movement after the defection of a great portion of membership (Stonehouse 75). His wish to stay about course compelled him to take a risk of defying the effects simply by foul weather to his ill-health.

He or she ignored every deterrent to his travelling that his cohorts posed yet they will were trying to guard him against the most severe health problems. He also required that they proceed to Carson and Leith where he intended to meet along with the members of his / her association, but it has been noted that his health condition had begun to develop worse. Surprisingly, he performed not halt the trip complaining of his well being rather he kept all of them awake with humorous tales on their way.

Unfortunately, his chilly rapidly became pleurisy, and the team was implored to halt their journey. They turned back looking for for medical help in addition to, despite his illustrious pain, he said that he would not die due to the fact of much work that will lied ahead of him or her. His agony increased persuasive them to call a doctor, but he nevertheless had the power to maintain a conversational engagement along with them (Stonehouse 78). Having been diagnosed for pleurisy, but his health condition looked to grow wearier together with time.

These people took him for even more medical attention in a Both roman Catholic hospital where this individual was admitted. Doctors altered their diagnosis from pleurisy to pneumonia, and in spite of the struggle he had been going through his mind was stuck to their mission. He sent a few telegraph messages to people of his association within Philadelphia and energy considered could have saved your pet if he committed that to the fight towards illness.

Early morning on January one, 1937, he experienced some periods of lucidity in addition to unconsciousness. At a certain interval of consciousness, he wrote a telegram with the aid of the colleague that proved to his colleagues to have been his last word to be able to the faithful. The telegram read: “I am therefore thankful for the active obedience of Christ.

No hope with out it” (Hart, ‘ Doctor Fundamentalis” 64). Just after the particular telegraph was written their body became so weak that it could not really withstand the rigors that were experiencing (Hart, “ Doctor Fundamentalis” 65). He stayed in that poor situation for your day and at around 7: 30 p. m. his soul left for eternal rest.

Early life

John Gresham Tätigen was born on This summer 28, 1881 to Arthur Machen and Mary Smith. He was the 2nd born among three daughters great parents were remaining in Baltimore, Maryland by simply the time of his birth. His was and then aged forty five and mother was aged 25 four. Stonehouse posits “Arthur was born in Virginia, qualified in Harvard as a new lawyer and his passions were deeply rooted within classical traditions of ancient south” (134).

He was good within literature and loved reading through and learning new expertise. For instance, he read works of Thucydides, Caesar, Greek New Testament, France literature, English literature, plus Horace. In addition, he had written some investigator and short stories several which won prizes plus put him through Harvard law school. Astonishingly, he learnt Italian at eighties claiming to do this for the sake of fun.

Gresham’s mother Mary Jones was born in Georgia. The girl was twenty one years younger than Arthur Machen by the time the 2 got married. She trained at Wesleyan College wherever he gained the experience as an author after issuing The Bible within Browning in 1903.

Moreover, while the husband was an, “Episcopalian, she opted to end up being a Presbyterian, and the girl taught her son reduced version and Westminster Catechism at his tender age “ (hart, “ Doctor Fundamentalis” 66). Gresham treasured his close relatives but spent most of his early days with all the mother. This explains the source regarding his passionate religious effect to the extent associated with forming religious movements (Hart, “ Defending the Faith” 67).

Typically the Machen’s kin exhibited a new sturdy association with the southern classicism, as nicely as, Victorianism. His moms and dads were sturdily cultured, well-off and pious Christian devoted. They attended Franklin Streets Presbyterian Church in their hometown, Baltimore.

The particular church formed part of the particular congregation of southern Presbyterian Church that was lined up with the Old School Presbyterianism of rather conservatism. His mother played the prominent role in Gresham’s acquaintance of Christian information through religious training at home (Calhoun 87).

Despite him opting for catechism classes at Wc2, his mother obliged him to commit to memory all of the teachings as properly as the Kings of Israel. That formed a solid foundation of his biblical and theological knowledge. In the age of fourteen years, Gresham decided in order to be considered a follower of Christ and he started attending for church services in Franklin Street Church. Also, he or she developed a love for reformed faith across denominations.

Education Life

As a younger boy, Gresham was privileged to attend private college. Private schools were assumed to be for the rich although his parents were financially stable. This individual was a bright college student and his good overall performance in high school degree enabled him to secure an opportunity at Johns Hopkins University in 1898. The university was at their neighborhood and was properly known for scholarships. He or she did entrance examination whose results proved him deserving of a scholarship that has been awarded to him (Hart, “ Defending the Faith” 69).

Tulsi Gildersleeve who was his professor, a respected scholar in United States along with a member of Franklin Street Church, mentored him. He figured out Latin, rhetoric and English literature and Greek while in the university. Basil Gildersleeve usually emphasized on the require for interpretation and parallelverschiebung of texts to additional languages making Gresham’s knowledge of other languages helpful (Stonehouse 87).

His minister Harris E. Kirk had suggested in order to him that he brings together the ministry because this individual was a devout Christian, but he refused. His refusal was initially seen to have been since of his excellent graduate studies and desire in order to pursue further studies. Notwithstanding his negative response, Gresham signed up at the Princeton theological seminary in addition to pursued his studies within an indiscriminate manner.

Gresham did not necessarily undertake subjects that focused on homiletics and Older Testament during his very first year. He termed the topics as iniquity invention. He or she loved dealing with the New Testament and worked closely with B. B. Warfield, who just such as him, believed that uniformity is the easiest to defend thus becoming a traditional Christian faithful (Hart, “ Defending the Faith” 76).

He got courses in Princeton College for master’s degree although he involved himself with social activities of typically the seminary. He used to dine at Benham Club because people from presently there knew him for his stunts. His fellow learners and social colleagues got known him for liveliness, good humor, and a new fanatic of Princeton’s soccer team thereby attending football games most of which were campus games.

Gresham later went in order to Marburg to pursue graduate student studies after declining an offer to lecture in Princeton Seminary. He analyzed under Wilhelm Herrmann that bewildered him by his / her theological liberalism.

He felt much liberalism to Christianity in typically the mind of his professor, William Herrmann, making your pet grow defensive contrary to the belief he had been used. This made him enjoy Princeton Seminary and the professors who had taught him. Having been offered 1 year opportunity to provide tutorials at Princeton Seminary and agreed to consider it (Calhoun 87).

Life as an Instructor at Princeton

Hart posits, “In 1906, Gresham returned to be able to Alexander Hall and carried on to take his dishes in Benham Club…students seemed not to like their elective course and complained to his mother more than the issue” ( Defending the Faith 85). With period, he became the most effective teacher in faculty, and as a result his dropped his aspire to follow PhD degree in Australia. He was strict in grading and teaching having a goal to help college students acquire the right knowledge and skills (Hart, “ Defending the Faith” 89).

In 1909, some students submitted their grievances to the board of company directors claiming that they required a modernized curriculum. A strong rebellion attracted typically the newspaper’ s coverage when the administration refused to change the curriculum in prefer of the students. Gresham on the sides with the administration given that he believed that conservative Christianity is the best defense against religious rebellion (Calhoun 87).

His support for the particular administration proved his maturity to the administration since he had recently gone through the same curriculum that students protested against. This individual later wrote three content articles: “The Hymns of the First Chapter of Luke”, “The Origin of 1st Two Chapters of Luke”, and, “The Virgin Labor and birth in the Second Century”.

We were holding posted in 1912 from the seminary as Princeton Theological Overview. Calhoun alleges, “He likewise helped in developing articles “Jesus and Paul” upward to the volume that seminary published in the celebration of centennial” (75). He later published several articles generally in most of which often he used critical arguments and utilized critical fights (Calhoun 76).

Life as a Minister and Professor

On November 3, 1913, at age thirty 2, Gresham was put below the care of the southern area of Presbyterian in Baltimore plus was licensed on Apr 22, 1914.

He was not comfortable staying under southern presbytery and that rendered him to getting ordained simply by Northern Presbyterian church about June 23, 1914 in New Brunswick. Faculty of seminary appointed him as an assistant Professor of Fresh Testament, a month before to his ordination.

Additionally, he went ahead and compiled a new book that accounted regarding the beginning of Apostle Paul’s creed. The book was produced public in 1921. Inside the book, he responded to intellectuals who had held that Apostle Paul altered the teachings of Christ by alleging that their restoration was the starting of faith. Hart claims, “The book was received well by conservative Presbyterians and had many reviews in the newspapers plus magazines, across the country” ( Defending the particular Faith 76).

Works Mentioned

Calhoun, Brian. Princeton Seminary: The Majestic Testimony, 1869-1929 . New York: Banner regarding Truth, 1996. Print.

Hart, Darryl. Doctor Fundamentalis. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, 1988. Printing.

—. Defending the Trust: J. Gresham Machen and the Crisis of Conventional Protestantism in Modern The usa . New York: Barker Publishing, 1994. Print.

Stonehouse, Ned. Gresham Machen: The Biographical Memoir . Philadelphia: Westminster Theological Seminary, 1978. Print.