Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Example Essay Sample
Topic 1 – Introduction
1. Definitions: anatomy, physiology, palpation, auscultation, percussion, homeostasis, negative feedback loop, positive feedback loop, intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, anatomical position, supine position, prone position, (frontal or coronal, transverse, sagittal, midsagittal, parasagittal, oblique sections or planes), cell, tissue, organ, organ system, serous membranes (distinguish between visceral and parietal layers), pericardium, pleura, peritoneum, visceral pleura, parietal pleura, visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium, visceral peritoneum, parietal periotoneum, retroperitoneal. Also know your structural names (i.e. olecranon) and regional terms (olecranal).
2. Distinguish between various subdivisions of anatomy and physiology presented in class (e.g. cytology, histology, endocrine physiology, pathology, etc.).
3. Distinguish between ultrasound, MRI, and CT scans in terms of procedure and scope.
4. List the 6 levels of structural organization of the human body in the correct order.
5. Describe 6 characteristics of living things as presented in class.
6. Define homeostasis and distinguish between positive and negative feedback loops with examples.
7. Identify the functions and major organs of the 11 organ systems of the human body. (Be able to tell them apart).
8. Name the two organ systems involved in the regulation of homeostasis and identify the main difference between their two modes of action.
9. Identify the location of the major body cavities and the major organs they house.
10. Describe the structure and functions of serous membranes.
11. Name the 3 body cavities formed by serous membranes and the organs they surround.
12. Identify the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.
Topic 2 – Chemistry
1. Definitions: matter, mass, weight, elements, atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes, radioisotopes, molecule, compound, ion, enzymes, metabolism, solute, solvent, solution, suspension, colloid, acids, bases, salts, electrolytes, amphipathic, denaturation.
2. Distinguish between each of the following and provide an example of each: a. ionic bonds and covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds
b. polar molecules and amphipathic molecules
c. exergonic and endergonic reactions
d. catabolism and anabolism
e. synthesis reactions and decomposition reactions
f. hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions
g. cations and anions
h. hydrophilic and hydrophobic
i. hexose and pentose sugars
j. monosaccharides and disaccharides and polysaccharides
k. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
l. structural (fibrous) and functional (globular) proteins
m. DNA and RNA (structure and functions)
3. Describe each level of protein folding (i.e. primary structure, secondary structure, etc.) including the types of chemical bonds involved.
4. Be able to describe or identify the chemical structures of the various nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids covered in class (i.e. monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycerol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, amino acids, and nucleotides). I won’t make you draw them but be able to recognize my drawings of them as presented in class.
5. Name the 3 monosaccharides absorbed by the human digestive system.
6. Name the monosaccharides that make up each of the following: sucrose, maltose, lactose.
7. Describe the structural differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
8. Explain what a hydrogenated fat is and explain why it is an unhealthy choice for human diet.
9. Name the type of covalent bonds formed between a) 2 nucleotides, b) 2 amino acids.
10. Name the type of bond that joins both strands of DNA.
11. Define activation energy and describe 4 factors that may increase the rate of a reaction.
12. Describe six properties of water and explain how each contributes to the importance of water within the human body.
13. What is the pH of blood, saliva, vaginal fluid, gastric juices, pancreatic juices? Indicate whether each is acidic, neutral, or alkaline (basic).
14. What is a buffer system? Why are buffers necessary in body fluids? What is the equation for the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?
15. Identify the major elements (e.g. carbon) that compose each type of macromolecule (i.e. nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates).
16. Explain the location, function and importance in the human body of DNA, RNA, proteins, glucose, glycogen, phospholipids, cholesterol, and ATP.
17. Name the short-term and long-term energy sources of the cell and where they are found/made.
Topic 3 – The Cell
1. Define: cytology, cell physiology, selective permeability, fluid mosaic model, gradient, membrane potential, electrochemical potential, isotonic solution, hypotonic solution, hypertonic solution, endocytosis, exocytosis, transcytosis, cell cycle, cell division, mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
2. Identify the parts of a cell on a diagram.
3. Describe the structure and function of each of the following organelles: a. Centrioles
e. Endoplasmic reticulum
h. Golgi apparatus
i. Intermediate filaments
n. Nuclear Envelope
r. Plasma membrane
4. Distinguish (compare/contrast) between:
a. Integral and peripheral membrane proteins
b. Passive and active transport
c. Protein Channels and Carriers/Transporters
d. Diffusion and osmosis
e. Filtration and dialysis
f. Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion
g. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
h. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum i. Cilia and flagella
j. Mitosis and meiosis
k. mitosis and cytokinesis
l. Cytoplasm and cytosol
m. Concentration gradient and electrical gradient
n. Primary active transport and secondary active transport
o. Centromere and centrosome
p. Chromosome and chromatin
q. Somatic cells and gametes
r. Haploid and diploid
s. Transcription and translation
t. Codon and anticodon
5. Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes.
6. Describe the role of cholesterol in cell membranes.
7. Describe 6 functions of membrane proteins.
8. What is the equation for aerobic cellular respiration and where does it occur?
9. Describe the operation of the sodium-potassium pump.
10. Explain how the sodium-potassium pump establishes an electrochemical gradient along the plasma membrane.
11. Digitalis, which is used as a heart medication, slows the action of the Na+/K+ ion pumps. How will this allow Ca2+ to accumulate inside the cell?
12. Describe the steps involved in the process of phagocytosis.
13. Describe the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis.
14. Describe the process of cell division in somatic cells. Hint: describe the major events that occur during each of the following stages of the cell cycle: a. interphase
15. Name the 3 phases of interphase (G1, S, and G2) and describe the major events that occur in each.
16. Define G0 phase of the cell cycle. Give examples of cells that are in G0.
17. Distinguish between cilia and flagella in terms of their structure and function.
18. Briefly describe the process of DNA replication (you are responsible only for the level of detail provided in lecture).
19. Explain why the replication of DNA is described as complementary, anti-parallel, and semi-conservative.
20. What is a promoter and what binds to it?
21. How does transcription know when to end?
22. Be able to determine the sequence of a DNA or RNA strand when given the template. e.g. If the DNA template sequence is -ACCCGTAACTTGG-,
What is the nucleotide sequence of the complementary DNA strand? What is the nucleotide sequence of the primary transcript?
23. Name the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a chemical bond between nucleotides within an RNA strand?
24. Name the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a chemical bond that joins nucleotides within a DNA strand?
25. Name the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a chemical bond that joins amino acids within a polypeptide chain.
26. What type of bond is involved in: a. complementary base pairing
b. covalent bond between nucleotides
c. covalent bond between amino acids
27. What type of chemical reaction is involved in the formation of a polypeptide chain?
28. Briefly describe the events that occur during transcription.
29. Describe the events that occur during translation.
30. Identify the specific roles of rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA in protein synthesis.
31. Identify the start codon for translation in humans.
32. Which cellular organelle would break down chemicals present in the
anatomy lab such as phenol, formaldehyde, and alcohol?
33. Why shouldn’t we drink salt water?