Genetic Causes of Prostate Cancer: A Study

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The authors of the study were interested in looking at genetic information in order to determine if there were any variants or covariants of a gene that had previously been linked with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Chromosome 17 is the strand of DNA that had been previously linked with prostate cancer. Results of the study indicate that there are two different variants of chromosome 17, and that both of them are associated with prostate cancer. Individuals who are born with those variants are at an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. A side finding of the study is that one of the variants has the opposite impact on type 2 diabetes. Individuals born with that variant are less likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Authors of the study were interested in discovering what parts of DNA are related to a heightened risk of colorectal and prostate cancer. The researchers identified that two different parts of DNA are related. They found that variations of 8q24 and rs6983267 are linked to an increased risk of developing prostate and colorectal cancer..

Rather than doing an experimental research design, the authors were instead interesting in summarizing all of the information on prostate cancer from the European Association of Urology. Authors summarized the process of screening, diagnosing, and treating prostate cancer.

Researchers were interested in identifying if any relationship existed between levels of physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis and deaths related to prostate cancer. The study was based on 2705 men that had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Results of the study found that males who got over 90 minutes of exercise per week were about 46 percent less likely to die from prostate cancer-related complications.

The study was aimed at identifying if patients who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are at an increased risk for anxiety and depression. Patients were given self-assessments before they received treatment, during treatment, and then one year after treatment was given. Results from the study indicate that 27 percent of prostate cancer patients were dealing with anxiety and depression. Those figures can be compared with the general population, which is 20 percent. The difference is statistically significant, and medical professionals can benefit from screening prostate cancer patients for anxiety and depression.

Researchers of the study tested 2 different testing methods for prostate cancer. The purpose was to see if higher sensitivity rates could be achieved if both testing methods were combined on patients. Diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were the two techniques used in the study. Authors tested results of each method alone, and then they tested sensitivity rates when the two methods were combined. Results indicated that they did achieve higher sensitivity levels of tumor detection when combining both different testing methods.

Researchers of the study were interested in finding out if urine tests could identify genetic information related to an increased risk of prostate cancer. Results of the study indicate that urine tests showed GSTP1 methylation in around 80 percent of the patients with prostate cancer. The authors conclude that neoplastic DNA is present in urine samples of patients with prostate cancer.

Researchers were interested in discovering whether or not PSA levels were higher in men who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The study was conducted on African-American men and white men. The study was conducted before treatment started for individuals with prostate cancer. The study involved 541 individuals. Results of the study indicated that PSA levels were higher in African-American men than white men in pretrial stages of prostate cancer diagnosis.

The study was based on the idea that not all tumors have the exact same makeup. The authors compared the structure of a wide range of different prostate cancer tumors in order to determine the level of similarity or difference between them, and whether or not current testing methods were able to work despite those differences. Tumor gene expression signatures were used. Authors discovered that there was a 78 percent classification accuracy with regard to the testing and diagnosis processes.

The study is based on identify whether or not an individual’s family history has an impact on their likelihood of developing prostate cancer. Two different study groups were created. 691 men with prostate cancer made up one group, and 640 spouses without prostate cancer were the control group. Results of the study indicate that 15 percent of the cancer group had either a father or a brother had prostate cancer, whereas only 8 percent of the control group had a father or brother who was diagnosed with prostate cancer. The study demonstrates that people who have a family history of prostate cancer are more likely themselves to develop the condition. People with a family history of prostate cancer can thus benefit from getting tested at different stages of their lives.

A relatively recent method of testing for prostate cancer involves finding the presence or absence of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Some debate exists as to whether or not the PSA method involves many cases of over diagnosis, in which a patient did not actually have prostate cancer. Researchers were interested in comparing rates of diagnosis before and after the PSA screening method was created in order to determine if any major differences existed. Results of their study indicated that diagnoses for prostate cancer rose after 1986, and reached a peak in 1992. Afterwards, rates of diagnoses declined. Even after rates stop rising, they tapered off at a level that was still higher than in 1986. The authors conclude that the PSA screening method may have initially had some problems and caused some over-diagnoses, but that it was eventually refined and resulted in accurate diagnoses for patients.

Prior to the study, it had already been established that prostate cancer was linked to variations in chromosome 27. This study found that it was also linked to a different gene. The x chromosome variant xq27-28 was found to be linked with increased risk of prostate cancer. 13 percent of people with the gene variant were also diagnosed with prostate cancer, which is higher than the overall population rate of around 8 percent. The authors make it a point to clarify that the presence of xq27-28 does not directly indicate that someone has prostate cancer, it merely increases their risk of developing it.