Diabetes also is known as diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs when the body glucose level in the blood is too high, as a result, the body is unable to control it. Glucose is an important energy source that comes from food that we consume. Insulin is made in the pancreases and is an important hormone that controls the glucose levels in the blood. Diabetes occurs when the blood levels of glucose are abnormally high because the body doesn’t release or use insulin adequately. The number of people being diagnosed with diabetes have exceedingly increased since 1980. The international diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that there are approximately 425 million adults have diabetes. It also estimated that by 2045 this number will rise to 629 million. People that are being diagnosed with diabetes is increasing worldwide, more particularly in low- and middle-income countries. IDF also states that 1 in 2 (212 million) people with diabetes are undiagnosed. People living with diabetes have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality than the general population. People with diabetes have a different type of symptoms such as:
- Extreme Fatigue
- The blurred vision which eventually could lead to blindness
- Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
- Unexplained weight loss
- Increased hunger
- Increased urination
- Increased thirst
There is a different type of diabetes. The two main type of diabetes is type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreases cannot produce any insulin. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune condition. The patient immune system attacks its insulin-producing cells called ß-cell in their pancreases. Although Type 1 diabetes occurs at any age, it is more commonly found in children and adolescence. In type 2 diabetes is known as a metabolic disorder. The body is unable to use insulin effectively or it doesn’t produce enough. Unlike type 1 diabetes there are various risk factors that are associated with type 2 diabetes. It risks factors include; if the patient is overweight, eats unhealthy, increases with ages if a patient has high blood pressure etc.
There is no cure for diabetes, however, there is numerous treatment to manage and control type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes insulin administer through an injection or through an insulin pump therapy. The patient would also need to monitor the blood glucose level every two to six months. With type 2 diabetes, patients are advised to have a change of lifestyle. This includes a change to their diet and carries out regular exercise. Medication such as Metformin can be used to control the blood glucose level.