Application of Geographic Information System in Dental Public Health/Oral Health Care
Health is one regarding the most important factors which indicate general wellbeing and quality-of-life of folks. Mane factors which trigger diseases differ in submission and concentration due to be able to the locations. Historically, the particular systems of public health information have collected information on causes of accidental injuries and death, disabilities, elements of environmental and behaviour risk, and plenty of other issues related to health (5). With the flow of the time the spatial analysis equipment have been improved plus the information has come to be of higher quality and much more accessible. It has led to the increasing use of Geographic Information Program taking into account associations between causative influences associated with geographic context and final results of public health (6).
Geographic Information Program (GIS) is considered to bean effective tool which will be more and more frequently used in public well-being globally. It is possible in order to useGIStechnology to give the description ofhealth care informationand to changethespatial organization of health treatment (7). GIS has been used in epidemiology, public welfare, plus many other areas associated with public health. GIS helps in detecting, giving a good summary of health problems, mapping the spread of disease, identifying risk population, and determining prevalence areas. GIStechnology may also be applied while examining the connection of health outcomes and access, setting priorities which usually target area interventions which are most in require, and exploring the development of the delivery method of medical care. GIS apps provide information concerning typically the placement of water pumps in the areas many infected by Guinea Earthworm (3), identification of distribution points of health promotion material for diabetes materials that is culturally appropriate, improvement of kid welfare services which are community-based (13). GIS technologies are also widely used to predict injurie of child pedestrians, monitor vector-borne diseases, and analyze plan and planning of numerous diseases.
Planning of public well-being service is “ the formulating population based projects, programs, or methods which aim to lessen morbidity and mortality in addition to to improve health” (13). The focus is place onto the strategy implementations. It has become apparent that GIS technology will not deliver health results which are better, nonetheless it helps improve the service delivered efficacy or lessen service delivery costs (8). Planners use GIS to be able to place public welfare and medical services, to distinguish neighborhoods along with health outcomes which will be strongly influenced by these kinds of socio-economic and demographic determinants as highly rural neighborhoods, disadvantaged communities, cultural and linguistic diversity concentrations, in addition to others.
Providers of health care seek to minimize the geographic and social inequity in health. Boulousstudied the The National Health Service (NHS) dentists distribution per 1000 population in England and Wales (1). The study illustrates the NHS dental work force shortage using the ‘traffic light’ mapping techniques in the mentioned regions. GIS has been also used to locate dental trauma in some areas in Brazil. Geographical databases of streets and GIS are used to analyze dental trauma. It has been found that areas which are at risk of dental traumas are those, which have a low socio-economic status and had substandard conditions of living. One of the most useful aspects of GIS in the sphere of public health is mapping population at risk. Different mapping techniques help display and investigate disease distributions.Looking at the location geography where the disease seems to thrive is considered to be a good way of studying the spread of disease (14).GIS technologies make it possible to visualize the spread of disease in certain areas and analyze this tendency.
The passt 10 years presented a variety of research which has been undertaken to provide the link between oral health and diabetes. Periodontal disease is considered to be the sixth major complication of diabetes. People diagnosed with diabetes, are 3 or 4 timesmore likely to have periodontal disease (4). Diabetes can affect people’s eyes, kidneys, heart, nerves, mouth, and other important systems in the body.The link between problems with oral health diabetes is due to high blood sugar. In case of poor control of blood sugar, it is a higher possibility of the development of oral health problems. This happens becausewhite blood cells are weakened by uncontrolled diabetes, and they are the body’s main defense against mouth infections (9).
In spite of the fact that GIS is not frequently used inpublic health, and quite rarely used in dental health studies, the method has gained popularity among professionals in the area as it offers the innovative information taking into account monitoring, planning, understanding, and allocation of health resources (10). Nowadays, GIS has been more and more often used as an analytical tool in health (11).
Thus, Geographic Information System is an innovative decision- support tool with a huge potential which may be used in planning, evaluating, and monitoring of public health care services including dental care. Mapping diseases gives the opportunity to detect spatial patterns and disparities, to help in public health policy and health care planning, to contribute to identifying high risk areas, and to generate hypotheses for research (15). Unfortunately, people from rural and remote areas have no opportunity to access private services of oral health. The use ofGIS mapping helps plan health care services in the solution of the issue. As oral health is and diabetes is closely related, it obvious that GIS is used as a tool to prevent and treat both of them.