Bipolar Disorder: Concept, Types, Symptoms


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Episodes of mood swings, depressive manics, sleep and weight issues are just a few symptoms to name. There are more than 3 million case per year of this disorder in the United States. A disorder that can last a lifetime and, although, it’s also a common disorder; there’s not a specific treatment to this condition only one that helps not cures. It’s a genetic disorder that can make changes of the brain structure and where the role of chemistry may play. Many mood episodes that could last for days at time or even months, sometimes suicidal thoughts. You might even have low energy and motivation or high energy and loss of interest in activities. There are people affected by this disorder that plays a major role in there life. Manic-depressive or mostly known as bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes shifts in mood, energy, and activities of day to day tacks.

There is four types of bipolar disorder each change the mood of a person ranging from extremely “up” and energized behaviors (manic episodes) to very depressed periods (depressive episodes). Hypomanic episodes are less severe manic periods.

  • The first type is Bipolar 1 Disorder which is defined by manic episodes that last for a 5-7 days and depressive episode that could last up to two week. The symptoms are so severe that the person would need immediate hospital care. Having depression and manic episodes at the same time are possible but also very dangerous. Patients would think about commiting suicide.
  • The second type is Bipolar ll Disorder defined by a pattern-like episodes of depression and hypomanic. It’s not as severe as Bipolar 1, but it could get serious if the person with disorder is not watched properly.
  • Cyclothymic Disorder is the third type where a person has numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive episodes. The symptoms could last up to two years at time or one year in children. However, symptoms of the disorder do not meet diagnostic requirements.
  • The last of the bipolar disorder is in a category of Other Specified and Unspecified and Related Disorders which is basically symptoms that don’t match the other three categories listed and are defined as Bipolar disorder.

Many patients with bipolar disorder experience periods of intense emotion, change in sleep and level of activity, and unusual behaviors. Mood episodes come as distinct periods that change mood and behavior drastically. People with manic episodes may experience many signs and symptoms such as feeling “high” or elated. Many people have lots of energy and increase of activity level. They many have trouble sleeping which causes people to be agitated or jumpy and they feel as if their thoughts are going through their mind quickly. People with depressive episodes many feel sad, empty, even loney. They have little energy and decrease of activities in their day. They may have trouble sleeping or they may oversleep which causes them to have trouble concentrating and feel as if they can’t enjoy anything.

Many people affected by depression may think about death or may even try to commit suicide. Sometimes mood episodes include both manic and depressive symptoms called mixed features. Bipolar disorder can be present even when mood swings are less extreme but during a hypomanic episode, an individual may feel function well and be productive. Usually the individual don’t feel as if anything is wrong, but family or friends could pick up the mood swings and changes in bipolar disorder.

A proper diagnosis can help patients with bipolar disorder. The doctor completes a physical exam to rule out conditions to make sure the problems are not being caused by other illnesses, such as a psychiatrist. Some symptoms are similar to other illnesses which could make it hard for doctors to make a diagnosis. Patients with this condition may suffer and have high risk of thyroid or heart disease, migraines, diabetes, obesity, or other physical illnesses. Many people who have bipolar disorder could also have conditions such as anxiety disorder, eating disorder, and/or substance abuse. Sometimes, a person with severe episodes of mania or depression could have “psychotic” symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations. They could be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia if they have bipolar disease and psychotic symptoms. Some other diagnosis are anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or they may also misuse alcohol or drugs, relationship problems, or perform poorly in school or work. These symptoms may lead to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

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