Antigen based vaccines don’t involve the insertion of modified tumor cell and even the immune cell into the body for antigen based vaccines. Antigen Based Vaccines are injected to stimulate the patient’s antigen presenting cells it takes up the antigen and it presents it to the T cells. There is a big challenge to this type of antigen based therapy and the challenge is finding the tumor-specific antigen for the which type of cancer the male or female has. It is very important that the vaccine therapy does not stimulate the immune response against the antigen found on the normal body cells or the T cells will kill the normal cells and even the cancer cells as well. There has been lots of research success in identifying tumor-specific antigens for the melanomas but antigens for other cancer types have shown a lot harder to find sometimes.
The tumor vaccine is only useful in cancer types that defined tumor antigens.
Antigen therapy vaccines is grouped in four general categories Peptide- based vaccines, Heat shock protein vaccines, DNA vaccines and viral and bacterial vector vaccines and these are all different type of strategies you can look into. Let’s talk about Peptide- based vaccines are entailed the injection of purified tumore proteins into the patients to help them. How it function is it helps proteins fold up in the shape and prevent misfolding the protein. If a combination of the tumour in the protein and heat shock protein as well is injected into the patent anywhere in the body the dendritic cell blind to the heat shock protein and it joins to proteins and then it will take up all of the present tumor protein to all of the T cells.
DNA vaccines is involves the injection of DNA containing all of the genes for the tumor specific proteins. The DNA vaccines are injected into the patient’s body but better to inject into the muscle. You will wish that the normal body cells take up the DNA and will produce the tumore protein form it transcription and translation as well. The tumor protein should be taken up by APCs in which will stimulate the tumor specific into a T cell.
Viral and Bacterial Vector vaccines is a strategy that directly injecting naked DNA into the patents muscle the DNA will be transported into the body in either viral or bacterial vector. The vector is an organisms like a bacteria or a can be a viruses or it is DNA constructs that are able to take the genetic information from one of the organism and put it into another organism. The Viral or bacterial vector is used in other ways as well it is also used as a second injection after an initial infection of a DNA vaccine. It does increase the immune response and may be even more effective that both of the strategies that are given alone. All of these strategies that i have talked about are all the same they all expose the patient’s immune system to the tumore proteins so they will be able to be much better respond to those that have the same protein on the surface or the tumor cell itself. The difference is how you the patent target the proteins are delivered to both the immune system for recognition.