Anatomy and physiology Essay Sample
1.1 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relationm to skin break down and development of pressure sores.
The skin is the largest organ of the body it covers a total surface space of around 30000 sq inches oviously depending on hight size of person. the skin is made up of nails,hair,sweat glands. the skin provides the organs protections by providng a outer surface which in tourn has other different jobs these are being able to regulate the body temperture it also has other functions such as provising sensations such as touch,heat,cold and pain throught the sensory nervous system. the skin comprises of layers the epidermis.dermis and subcantanious layer of hypodermis. each layer has its own function and its importanc eof maintiaing the integrity of skin and thereby the whole body structure. presusre sores or ulcers are the result of break down of skin in realtion to the supply of bloody accessing the site without bloody supply the skin starts to break down caucing ulcers and pressore sores
1.2 Iidentify pressure sites on the body.
Pressure are sites comprises mainly on the body part of the body these are:
shoulders or shoulder blades
back of your head
rims of your ears
knees, ankles, heels or toes
tail bone (the small bone at the bottom of your spine)
If you are a wheelchair user, you are at risk of developing pressure ulcers on: your buttocks
the back of your arms and legs
the back of your hip bone
1.3 Identify factors which may oput a individula at risk of skin breakdown and pressure areas.
• Pressure and shear
• Impaired or restricted mobility / activity
• Sensory impairment
• Reduced level of consciousness
• Poor nutrition and hydration
• Extremes of age
• Poor posture or inadequate support
• Previous pressure damage
• Acute, chronic and terminal illness
1.4 Describe how in correct moving and handling can damage the skin
By using incorrect moving and handling techniques can put residents at risk. These can happen when residents are moved into:
• Chairs- they may be unable to get out of it .The seat surface, covering or padding may cause uneven distribution
• Wheelchairs which may be ill-fitting, causing pressure. Skin may be damaged on contact with protrusions such as footplates.
• Beds Confinement to bed can make the resident unable to alter position in bed.
• When using glide sheets, this can cauce sheering when the sheet is placed, crumpled against skin, feet and/or arms and when dragged or moved inot postion can cauce damage.
1.5 Identify a range of interventions that can reduce the risks of skin breakdown and pressure areas. reduction of pressure areas can be as simple as munovering a resident by repostioning with on chair or bed, creams and shields can be placed after using the toilet which will act as another klayer of skin helping to reduce breakdown of skin, assiting clients to move walka round will increase the flow of bloody to body areas that may have been placed agianst a object sucha s bottom agianst seat.bed wedges in bed can movuver a resident of a pressure site to increase the flow of bloody therefore reducitng the risk.turn charts put in place so that other care workers can work in one to decrease a resident pressure area.Place pillows behind their back when turning from side to side. Pillows are also effective when placed under the heels to reduce the pressure in those areas. pressure that occurs between knees due to being close together,by. placing a folded blanket or sheet to separate the knees will reduced redness and sores.
1.6 Describe changes to a indoviduals skin condtion that should be reported any skin chamnges such as sheering,wounds, red marks, purple brusing should be reported at all times in order to prevent further damge being acheived.
identifty legislation and national;
guidelines affected by pressure care race relations act
disbaility discrimination act
mental capacity act
health and saftey act
health and social care act
Describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure areas in your work place.
2.1 Describe why team working is important in relation to providiing pressure area care.decribe why you follow agreed care plans we do this for comtinutity of care, every fellow care worker working together and acheivng the best results for the resident, if one person skips or misses aplying creams using aids in order to prevent pressure areas then this can undo months of hard work achieved byt hose whom are working toegther, therefore traiing is essential and pressure charts,turn charts shouold be feilled out and signed so that care workers are accountable for acthere actions. traiining on pressure areas can help aid care workers by giving informations and showing results of in effective care given to residents this way they will have knowledge and undertanding. conmsistency is the key to acheiving the best results
3.4 Describe actions to take where any concerns with the agreed care plan are noted. is a amendment of the care plans if the care plans are not being met or a cirumcstances has changed this needs to be given to the senior member of teama nurse so implemtation can be addressed.
3.5 Identify what the water low pressure assessment tool is and how it is used. The primary aim of this tool is to assist you to assess risk of a patient/client developing a pressure ulcer. Use this together with your clinical judgement. The Waterlow consists of seven items: build/weight, height, visual assessment of the skin, sex/age, continence, mobility, and appetite, and special risk factors, divided into tissue malnutrition, neurological deficit, major surgery/trauma, and medication.
The tool identifies three ‘at risk’ categories,
a score of 10-14 indicates ‘at risk’
a score of 15-19 indicates ‘high risk’,
a score of 20 and above indicates very high risk.
3.6 Identify why it is important to use risk assessments tools
It is a legal requirement for those acessing day care, residential or nurisng care that they have a risk assessment carried out this is to to find the risk and implemtnt the correct methods of care. moving and handling techniques,aid euipment needed to reduce pressure areas
4.1 Identify a range of aids or equipments used to relieve pressure areas. aids or equi[ptment used to relieve pressure could include: soft form matresses
pro pad cushions
repose matress toppers, cusions, foot protectors, wedges
barrier creams (cavillon)
releiving dressing, ( alleyvin gental sacrum)
applying gel heels, sacrum
also gel cushions.
4.2 Describe safe use of aids and equipment
Training if you are not trained to use equipments then do not use check equipment prior to using for tears in sling or sheets,battery life,brakes ,nothing missing or broken do not use equipment on own even if you feel you can these equipments require two people for a reason to rpevent sheering and cauce discomfort to resdient check care plans what is been assesed to use on resident if condtion has worsend then seek help from senior or nurse mangamenet in order to change the care plan by implementing another risk assessment
4.3 Identify where up to date information and support can be obtained about, materials,equipments and resources. Materials
Up to date information on materials can be found on the internet. A Manager or senior member of staff, CQC or the provider of the materials. Equipment Up to date information on equipment can be found on the internet. A Manager or senior member of staff, CQC or the provider of the equipment. The use of equipment is covered by the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998.