Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anyway in a body. These abnormal cells are called as cancer cells, malignant cells or tumor cells. These cells can infiltrate normal body tissues. Many cancers and the abnormal cells that compose the cancer tissue are further identified by the name of the tissue that abnormal originated from (for example, breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer). Cancer is not confined to humans; animals and other living organisms can get cancers.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the males and Breast cancer is most common in females. However, lung cancer is number one cancer killer for both men and women. (Prevention of cancer through lifestyle changes, 2004). So first we have to understand how cancer develops through our lifestyle changes.
Cancer is leading cause of death in worldwide. The incident of cancer and cancer types influence by many factors. Such as tobacco use, obesity, drinking alcohol, age, gender, genetic, race. Local environment, diet modifications … Etc.
Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. Some cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human papilloma virus. These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of cells. Typically many genetic changers are required before cancer develop. Some cancers are due to inherited genetic defect from a person’s parent.
Many cancers can be prevent by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking alcohol too much, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccinations against certain infectious diseases, not eat too much processed foods and red meats and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Yearly move to early detection through screening is useful for cervical and breast cancer. Regular exercise helps to increase the body’s antioxidant mechanisms. Diet and exercise may play an important role in inducing the promotion of cancer. And it is inducing apoptosis by altering hormones such as insulin, testosterone and estrogen or growth factors.
Pathophysiologic changers of cancer
Cancer has a whole complex of pathophysiology. In genetic changers, regulate growth maturity and death of the cells. Genetic changes occur at many levels. There could be a gain or loss of entire chromosomes or single DNA nucleotide.
There are two broad categories causing genes.
- Oncogenes – There are cancer causing. They may be normal genes which are expressed at inappropriately high level in patient with cancers or they may be altered or changed normal genes due to mutation. In both cases these genes lead to cancerous changes in the tissues.
- Tumor suppressor genes- these genes normally inhibit cell division and prevent survival of cells that have damaged DNA. In patient with cancer these tumor suppressor genes are often disabled. This is caused by cancer promoting genetic changers. Typically, changes in many genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell.
Sometimes there may be genetic amplification. Here a cell gains many copies of small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material.
Point mutation may occur at single nucleotides. There may be deletions and insertions especially at the promoter region of the gene. This changes the protein coded for by the particular gene. Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genetic material from DNA virus or retrovirus. This may lead to formation of oncogenes.
Translocation is yet another process when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location.
A tumor means swelling but not all swelling are tumors. Some of them may be caused due to inflammation, infection, cysts or fluid filled lesions or due to benign growths. A cancerous tumor has the capacity to grow rapidly and to metastasize or spared to other tissue.
Among most of women, very common cancer is breast cancer. Certain breast cancer risk factors related to personal behaviors, such as unhealthy diet and less exercises, being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not being physically active, not having children, not breastfeed the children, taking oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy after menopause. Elevated serum estradiol has also been shown to be a risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.